1. What is coronavirus?
Coronaviruses - a family of viruses that predominantly infect animals, but in some cases can be transmitted to humans. Usually, diseases caused by coronaviruses proceed in a mild form, without causing severe symptoms. However, there are severe forms, such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
2. What is the transmission route of coronavirus?
Drops that form when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
In addition, it can spread when someone touches any contaminated surfaces, such as a door handle. People become infected when they touch their mouth, nose, or eyes with soiled hands.
Initially, the outbreak came from animals, presumably, the source was the seafood market in Wuhan (China), where there was an active trade not only in fish, but also in animals such as marmots, snakes and bats.
3. Who is the source of coronavirus infection?
Sick people or animals.
4. Where did the infection come from?
According to Chinese scientists, the natural reservoir of COVID-19 is wild animals (bats). The main place where human infection came from was the South China Wholesale Seafood Market, where wild animals, including bats and reptiles, were purchased.
5. What are the main symptoms of coronavirus infection?
high body temperature
6. Is the virus stable in the external environment?
Coronavirus is unstable in the external environment, dies at a temperature of 57 degrees C and above, unstable to disinfectants and alcohol-containing agents.
7. What is the incubation period of the infection?
The incubation period (from the moment of infection until the onset of signs of the disease) is from 2 to 14 days, usually 2-7 days.
8. Is there a cure for this infection?
There is currently no specific treatment. Pathogenetic and symptomatic treatment is provided.
9. How to protect yourself from coronavirus infection?
The most important thing is to keep your hands and surfaces clean. Keep your hands clean, wash them often with soap and water, or use a disinfectant.
Also try not to touch your mouth, nose or eyes with unwashed hands (usually people unconsciously touch their faces on average 15 times per hour).
Carry a hand sanitizer with you so that you can clean your hands any time.
Always wash your hands before eating.
Be especially careful when in crowded places, airports, and other public transportation systems. As much as possible, reduce the touch to the surfaces and objects located in such places, do not touch your face.
Carry disposable wipes with you and always cover your nose and mouth when you cough or sneeze, be sure to dispose them after use.
Do not eat food (nuts, chips, cookies and other snacks) from common packages or utensils if other people dipped their fingers in them.
Avoid complimentary handshakes and kisses on the cheek until the epidemiological situation gets stabilized.
At work, regularly clean surfaces and devices that you touch (computer keyboard, general office equipment panels, smartphone screen, remotes, door handles and handrails).
10. How to wear a medical mask?
Gently cover the nose and mouth with the mask and secure it to reduce the gap between the face and the mask.
Do not touch the mask during use. In order to remove a used mask, wash your hands after touching it.
After the mask becomes wet or dirty, put on a new clean and dry mask.
Do not reuse disposable masks. They should be discarded after each use and disposed immediately after removal.
11. Can a novel coronavirus be cured?
Yes, sure. However, there is no specific antiviral drug for the novel coronavirus - just as there is no specific treatment for most other respiratory viruses that cause colds.
Viral pneumonia, the main and most dangerous complication of coronavirus infection, cannot be treated with antibiotics. In the case of pneumonia, treatment is aimed at maintaining lung function.
12. Who is at risk?
People of all ages have the risk of contracting the virus. A statement by the Wuhan Health Commission (China) states that in 60 most recent cases the age ranged from 15 to 88 years.
However, as with most other viral respiratory diseases, children and people over 65 years of age, people with a weakened immune system are at risk of a severe course of the disease.
13. Is there a vaccine for the novel coronavirus?
Currently, there is no such vaccine, however, in the scientific organizations of China and a number of countries its development has already begun.
14. Where to go if there are symptoms similar to coronavirus infection?
If you experience symptoms of an acute respiratory infection or if you suspect a novel coronavirus pneumonia, you must stay home and immediately call an ambulance (103) and call 1406 (call-center), 87172768043.
In the case of a severe form, before the ambulance crew arrives, practice preventive measures (limit contact with people, practice cough etiquette, wear a mask, do not self-medicate).
15. What is the difference between coronavirus and influenza virus?
Coronavirus and influenza virus may have similar symptoms, but genetically they are completely different.
Influenza viruses multiply very quickly - symptoms appear two to three days after infection, and the coronavirus takes up to 14 days to do this.
16. How to determine if you have the coronavirus infection?
Timely diagnosis is one of the most important measures when there is a threat of spread of a new coronavirus in Kazakhstan.
In less than 7 days from the moment of getting information on the gene structure of the novel coronavirus, two variants of diagnostic kits have been developed for determining the presence of the virus in the human body.
The kits are based on the molecular genetic research method, the so-called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using this method gives test systems significant advantages.
The first is high sensitivity - using developed test systems it is possible to detect single copies of viruses.
The second - to diagnose the disease, there is no need to take blood, it is enough to take a sample from a nasopharynx with a cotton swab.
Third, the analysis result can be obtained in 2-4 hours.
Diagnostic laboratories of Kazakhstan throughout the territory have the necessary equipment and specialists for using the developed diagnostic tools.
17. Who is subject to isolation in a hospital?
According to the Decree of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated March 16, 2020 No. 25 “On measures to ensure the safety of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan in accordance with the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On the introduction of a state of emergency in the Republic of Kazakhstan”, people who arrived from countries included in category 1a):
within the last 14 days, with the exception of official and government delegations, as well as owners of official and diplomatic passports, airline pilots and crew members, locomotive crews, persons associated with railway transportation activities and Drivers engaged in international road transport of goods, are isolated in hospitals designated by local executive authorities.
18. What requirements should citizens in a quarantine hospital comply with?
Requirements for being in a quarantine hospital:
- Mandatory continuous stay in the places, determined by local executive bodies within 14 calendar days;
- during quarantine (14 days): it is not allowed to leave the place of quarantine; allowed to use all types of communications (telephone, Internet);
- measures on the part of medical personnel during quarantine include: inspection, measurement of body temperature, blood pressure, interrogation;
- for medical reasons, biomaterial from the throat, nasopharynx can be taken for laboratory examination, if necessary, other research methods can be used;
- in case of violation of the regime by a person under quarantine, administrative responsibility is put on the person.
19. Who is subject to isolation at home? How is home isolation done?
Isolation at home (home quarantine) at the place of residence (stay) within 14 days from the date of crossing the border of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be carried out by persons arriving from countries of category 1b):
Schengen countries, except countries listed in category 1a).
Home quarantine is carried out in compliance with the requirements in accordance with Appendix 2 of the Decree of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated March 16, 2020 No. 25 “On measures to ensure the safety of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan in accordance with the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On the introduction of a state of emergency in the Republic of Kazakhstan” “Rules for isolation at home (home quarantine) for high-risk individuals with COVID-19”.
20. What requirements should citizens who are in home quarantine comply with?
Requirements for being in home quarantine:
- Mandatory permanent stay at the place of residence (house, apartment, hostel, hotel, etc.) for 14 calendar days;
- in the absence of conditions for isolation at home, hospitalization is recommended;
- during isolation at the place of residence (14 calendar days), visits to crowded places are prohibited;
- measures on the part of medical personnel during home quarantine (14 calendar days) include: consultations and control of home quarantine by phone calls;
- for medical reasons, biomaterial from the throat, nasopharynx can be taken for laboratory examination, if necessary, other research methods are carried out.
- for medical reasons (symptoms of acute respiratory viral infections), a person is hospitalized in a medical institution for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment at the expense of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
- in case of violation of the regime by a person under home quarantine, administrative responsibility is provided.
21. What measures are taken for people who have come from category 2 countries?
Today, category 2 includes the following countries:
People who have arrived in the Republic of Kazakhstan from the above countries are monitored by a primary health care provider at their place of residence (stay) by calling within 14 days from the date of crossing the border of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
22. What are the requirements for citizens coming from category 2 countries?
Requirements for persons arriving from category 2 countries:
A person has the right to travel within the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
It is recommended not refuse visits to crowded places, to limit contacts with other persons.
The observation of the primary health care provider by place of residence (stay) within 14 days from the date of crossing the border of the Republic of Kazakhstan is established by phone call.
According to medical indications (symptoms of acute respiratory viral infections), a person can be hospitalized in medical organization for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment at the expense of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
23. Where to refer about the category of countries where the issuance of visas and entry into the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan, regular flights, pedestrian crossings, rail/road passenger transport, air connections are temporarily suspended?
For these questions, you must contact the Ministry of Foreign Affairs by phone 72-01-11, you can also look for information on the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
24. In what cases is it necessary to take tests for a coronavirus infection? Where to go?
A laboratory test for coronavirus infection is carried out for people in the presence of clinical and epidemiological indications. For this, in case of respiratory infection or in case of suspicion of contact with a patient with coronavirus, you must immediately call a doctor at home.
After examination of a doctor, in case of suspected coronavirus infection, tests are taken in a hospital for a study.
25. What are the recommendations for people coming from other countries who are not included in the category of coronavirus (COVID-19) infection?
People arriving from other countries where the epidemiological situation of coronavirus is safe should follow the necessary preventive measures recommended in Kazakhstan: monitor the state of health, practice personal hygiene, follow the information recommended by the Ministry of Healthcare of the Republic of Kazakhstan on official Internet resources, in case of symptoms respiratory infection stay home and call a doctor.